MLA Style Manual
Dates in text should have a number rather than an ordinal.
April 6 (not April 6th)
Punctuate common forms of dates as follows:
April 1967 (no comma)
For months, use the following forms in references in all publications; do not follow with a period.
In MLA “Employment Opportunities,” use ##/##/## (month/date/year) format.
Use numerals, unless the year is at the beginning of a sentence. When referring to a decade, never use an apostrophe before the “s.”
Numerical lists imply rank or temporal order (first 1, then 2, or 1 is more important than 2). Do not number if no such order is intended. In lists that are run together in the text and number more than three, use numbered phrases. Set numbers in parentheses without periods.
(1) etc., (2) etc., (3) etc., and (4) etc.
When items are indented without numbers, begin each new entry with a bullet, set flush left. When they are indented with numbers, the list is laid out the same way, but the bullet is replaced with a numeral and period.
A one-third share is sufficient.
Ratios may be given with numerals and a colon:
Close up spaces around mathematical symbols such equal signs and less than or greater than symbols.
Spelling out measurements is preferred; when abbreviations are necessary, set them without periods.
Spell out whole numbers. Use numerals with a multiplication symbol (×) in fractions.
Always use the numeric form, except for sums greater than $1 million; then use mixed numeric and verbal forms.
For currencies other than the US dollar, use the following formats.
$36.50 (Canadian) for Canadian dollars
In the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA), formerly the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, text, spell out ordinal numbers less than 100:
In the text of MLA News articles, on MLANET, in monographs, and other publications, abbreviate ordinals greater than nine. Spell out whole numbers in all publications’ text through ninety-nine:
one through 999,999
In MLA News “Employment Opportunities” ads, all ordinal and cardinal numbers are represented in numeric form.
Spell out and hyphenate fractions.
If any number in a paragraph requires numerals rather than spelled out numbers, (higher than one hundred, decimal, percentage, money, etc., excepting dates), set all the numbers in numerals.
The library in Johnson City received 124 loan requests during a 1-year period. The library in Smithfield, however, received 19 loan requests, and the library in Morgantown only 12.
Do not begin a sentence with a numeral. Write out the number in full, or recast the sentence.
Provide both numbers (n) and percents where applicable when reporting data.
If the denominator changes frequently, it is useful to present numbers as n=74/258; 29% unless the denominator is noted in the text.
Of 258 respondents, 74 (29%) indicated...
In text, use numerals and “%.” Spell out the numeral and the word only if they begin the sentence. Where the percentage is less than 1%, add a decimal point and a zero.
The following are a few common statistical terms; set them as indicated. Text should be used rather than symbols, except for statistics or formulas.
Do not use ditto marks (") for repeated items; supply the numbers. Provide numbers (n), with percentages (where applicable) in the next column in parentheses. Use an em dash to indicate entries that are not supplied or are irrelevant; use a zero to indicate that a particular universe has none of the items in question. Do not use “0%”; that is mathematically impossible. If both real numbers and percentages happen to be zero, give just the real number and no percentage.
In running text, refer to each table by Arabic numeral. Do not use “see”:
Students preferred electronic reserves to print reserves (Table 1).
Use the following format:
Spell out the time of day in text for the JMLA.
At seven o'clock, the family rose.
If an exact moment is emphasized, use numerals.
At 7:35 a.m., the family rose.
Always use numbers when “a.m.” or “p.m.” are used.
At 7:00 a.m., the family rose.
Set “a.m.” and “p.m.” close, with periods.
Medical Library Association
Last Updated: 2013 July 31