MLA Style Manual
References should appear at the end of a sentence unless several sources are referenced and that needs to be clarified.
Turner notes that ..... .
Reference should be made to the version, electronic or print, that was actually referenced. If authors are aware that an alternate format exists and wish to direct readers to it, the reference should include in parentheses: “Available from:,” the full uniform resource locator (URL) in angle brackets, and the date cited in square brackets.
Leisey M. The Journey Project: a case study in providing health information to mitigate health disparities. J Med Lib Assoc. 2009 Jan;97(1):30–3. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.97.1.005. (Available from: <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2605042>. [cited 1 Sep 2009].)
Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians. Vital pathways: the hospital libraries project: final report and recommendations, December 31, 2008. Chicago, IL: Medical Library Association; 2008. (Available from: <http://www.mlanet.org/pdf/resources/vital_finalreport.pdf>. [cited 1 Sep 2009].)
Titles of books and journals should be given in italics. Titles of book chapters, journal articles, and electronic documents should be in plain type, enclosed in quotation marks. Web page titles and sections of chapters are capitalized but do not use italics or quotation marks. See “capitalizing titles of works” in the “Names and Terms” section for capitalization guidelines.
In the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA), formerly the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, if an author mentions a website in the text but has not cited specific content that would warrant a reference, the uniform resource locator (URL) for the website is placed in angle brackets following the relevant text.
In the MLA News, single web addresses may be placed in parenthesis following the text that mentions the website.
MLA reference style is based on the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (which describe what is often referred to as “Vancouver style”), of which MLA is a signatory. The purpose of a reference is to enable a reader to find the same original material; therefore, the information should be complete and in detail.
Include the names of all authors. Follow Index Medicus for abbreviations of journals. Delete “Ltd.,” “Co.,” and corporate indications from names of publishers. Use two-letter postal abbreviations for states.
Repeat a reference number in the text that has already been used. If an author repeatedly cites a work, usually a monograph, but cites specific pages of it, rather than give the full Vancouver reference version of the work, section 14.24 of CMS16 can be followed for such references by using a new reference number with the primary author’s last name and a shortened title of the work followed by the specific page numbers.
For unpublished materials, theses, and audiovisual materials, include enough information for the reader to obtain a copy, if desired.
The styles described below show the information to be included and the punctuation. Sample references are listed after each explanation. Set all in plain type.
See Appendix A for other resources on reference requirements.
Dillman DA. Mail and telephone surveys: the Total Design Method. New York, NY: Wiley; 1978.
Pizer IH, Walker WD. Physical access to resources. In: Darling L, Bishop D, Colaianni LA, eds. Handbook of medical library practice. 4th ed. v.1. Chicago, IL: Medical Library Association; 1982. p. 15–64.
Medical Library Association. MLANET [Internet]. Chicago, IL: The Association; 1996 [rev. 1 Jan 2008; cited 24 Jan 2008]. <http://www.mlanet.org>.
Guedon JC. Beyond core journals and licenses: the paths to reform scientific publishing. ARL Bimonthly Report [Internet]. 2001 Oct(218) [cited 20 Nov 2002]. <http://www.arl.org/newsltr/218/guedon.html>.
Brantz MH, Forsman R. Classification and audiovisuals. Bull Med Lib Assoc. 1977 Apr;65(2):261–4.
Lawrence B, Weil BH, Graham RX. Making online searches available in an industrial research environment. J Am Soc Inf Sci. 1974 Nov/Dec;25(6):364–9.
Smith R. Adapting a new technology to the academic medical library: personal digital assistants. J Med Lib Assoc. 2002 Jan;90(1):93–4.
Veaner, Allen B. Academic Librarianship in a Transformational Age: Program, Political, and Personnel. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall; 1990. 520 p. $28.50. Paperback. ISBN: 978-0-8161-1875-2.
The Pituitary. Edited by Colin Beardwell and Gary L. Robinson. Boston, MA: Butterworth; 1981.(Butterworths international reviews, clinical endocrinology 1.) 337 p. $29.95. ISBN: 978-0- -4070-2272-4.
NOTE: Names are set as follows:
Nakamura RM. Health in America: A Multicultural Perspective. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon; 1998. $46.00. ISBN: 978-0-205-29012-4.
Smedley Brian D. [and others], eds. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003. $79.95. ISBN: 978-0-309-08532-2.
Journals may be cited as monographs (special issues of currently established journals) or as new publications; for example: Monograph:
Clinical Therapeutics. International Journal of Drug Therapy, 1982. v.5 (special issue). $5/issue, $29 (subscription).
Survey of Immunologic Research. Basel, Switzerland: Karger; 1982. v.1, no.1, 1982. ISBN: 978-3-8044-2971-6; ISSN: 0252-9564.
Medical Library Association
Last Updated: 2013 July 31